Tuesday, March 10, 2020
7 jobs that are incredibly underpaidÃ We live in a world where not all jobs- or salaries- are created equal. While some jobs are glamorous and come with equally glamorous paychecks, others offer more humble salaries- and some of them just might surprise you. According to a recent article on Glassdoor.com, the average American worker is underpaid by approximately $7,500- this translates to salaries that are roughly 13% less than their potential market values. This is attributable to a variety of factors, from job market conditions and supply vs. demand of available talent to the tendency of some new employees to not negotiate for higher salaries when starting new jobs.LetÃ¢â¬â¢s take a closer look at 7 jobs that are incredibly underpaid, often despite having very important responsibilities.1. Medical assistantMedical assistants work directly under the guidance of doctors and nurses, and have a host of important responsibilities including maintaining medical records, prepping patients for exams, and administering medicat ions. That said, they donÃ¢â¬â¢t typically command large salaries. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the mean average wage for medical assistants is $32,850.2. Web developerIf youÃ¢â¬â¢re looking to break into the web developer profession, you may find a wealth of opportunities across industries, and even across borders as international projects abound. That said, the growing supply of talented web developers both around the United States and abroad has adversely impacted salaries. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the mean average wage for web developers is $72,150.3. Social workerSocial workers are typically dedicated and qualified individuals who provide important support services to populations in need. Despite being a rewarding and commendable profession, the average social worker is not earning a huge payday. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the mean average wage for social workers is approximately $59,410.4. Licensed practical nurse (LPN) Nurses are incredibly important professionals who handle a wide array of critical tasks in a variety of healthcare settings, and are essential personnel for handling patient needs. That said, they typically make far less than their colleagues who are doctors or registered nurses (RNs). According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the mean average wage for LPNs is $44,840.5. Pharmacy technicianWhen youÃ¢â¬â¢re purchasing prescription medications at your local pharmacy, youÃ¢â¬â¢re likely to encounter a pharmacy tech at the front lines. These workers mix, measure, count out, and label medications as well as interact directly with customers. However, pharmacy techs donÃ¢â¬â¢t command the same salaries as the pharmacists they work beside. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the mean average wage for pharmacy techs is $32,170.6. Veterinary technicianWhen your pet needs a checkup or isnÃ¢â¬â¢t feeling well, you can count on a vet tech to help you out when you first arrive at the veterinarianÃ¢â¬â¢s office. TheyÃ¢â¬â¢re responsible for a host of things that help keep veterinarian practices running smoothly, including performing medical tests, preparing serums and vaccines, taking and preparing samples, and maintaining charts and medical equipment. Vet techs likely arenÃ¢â¬â¢t in the field to get rich quick; the mean average wage according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics is $33,870.7. Emergency medical technician (EMT)Few can argue about the importance of EMTs- when an accident or medical emergency occurs, they are often the first on the scene, and assess injuries, administer aid, and transport individuals to hospitals and medical facilities. Despite their incredible importance in saving lives, they just donÃ¢â¬â¢t command big salaries. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the mean average wage for EMTs is $36,110.As you can see, not all employees are compensated equally. The 7 jobs listed here may offer professional fulfillment and satisfaction, depending on oneÃ¢â¬â¢s job-related goals, but they will probably not set you on a road to riches. If youÃ¢â¬â¢re on the hunt for a new job and salary is a big factor for you, use this information to help guide you towards- and away- from certain positions.
Sunday, February 23, 2020
Motivation Letter (as to why my university should choose me to be the graduate representative speaker at graduation) - Essay Example The lecturers are always ready to listen, and advice me when I seek their help and have mentored my leadership. University life has made me successful, and it would be an honor to express my regards in reciprocation. The special relationships that I had with the lecturers contributed greatly to my personal growth. They taught me crucial values, which I still practice to date. Consequent to their mentorship, I attained a personality that has made me achieve my dreams in life. My heart overflows with gratitude to them, because of influencing my life positively, and would appreciate an opportunity to appreciate them in kind through service delivery to the institution. Members of staff also played a great role in my life. They were always friendly to me, and took their time to help, whenever I sought their help. Their cooperation allowed me to have an easy time in campus, and I would like to demonstrate results of their efforts. Having been a social student, I always made use of available opportunities to interact with other students in the University. I participated in most of the school opportunities, which gave me a platform to meet and bond with other students. Following these interactions, I managed to build strong relationships with my fellow students, and this motivates me to represent them during the
Friday, February 7, 2020
Performance management system for Marks and Spencer - Research Paper Example In practice, it has been proved that the findings of these systems do not always reflect the actual status of organizations, in terms of their performance. Thus, the identification of effective PM systems is a key challenge for managers internationally. The potential use of a performance management system for measuring the performance of Marks and Spencer (UK) is examined in this paper. Three performance management systems are set under examination, as of their appropriateness for Marks and Spencer: the Balanced Scorecard, the Goal Setting and the Individual Reward System. It is proved that all these systems could be used for measuring the performance of Marks and Spencer under the terms that their implications and challenges, as analyzed below, are taken into consideration. In any case, it seems that these systems can reflect rather the current performance of the specific organization, or, at least, the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s performance in the short term. If used for studying the potentials of the organization for a long term growth, these systems would be appropriately alternated, as explained below.The measurement of performance is a key part of organizational strategy. However, the criteria on which the measurement of performance of modern organizations is based are not standardized, meaning that each organization can employe different methods for measuring and evaluating its performance. Most commonly, the following issue needs to be addressed: how could a particular organization choose a performance management (PM) system that will offer accurate findings, in regard to the organizational performance? In practice, it has been proved that the use of a popular PM system, such as the Balanced Scorecard, can minimize the risks for failures in measuring organizational performance. Due to its high effectiveness, the Balanced Scorecard is preferred by firms of various sizes; in a relevant research it has been revealed that Ã¢â¬Ëabout 60% of the Fortune 1000 has a Balan ced Scorecard in placeÃ¢â¬â¢ (Niven 2006, p.2). However, under certain terms, the findings of a Balanced Scorecard may not fully reflect the performance of a particular organization. In this context, the use of other performance management (PM) systems, as alternative, is often considered as unavoidable. The three PM systems presented in this paper, i.e. the Balanced Scorecard, the Goal Setting and the Individual Reward System, are analyzed in particular as of their use in measuring the
Wednesday, January 29, 2020
European Mens Handball Championship Essay HANDBALL (also known as team handball, Olympic handball or European handball) is a team sport in which two teams of seven players each (six outfield players and a goalkeeper) pass a ball to throw it into the goal of the other team. The team with the most goals after two periods of 30 minutes[clarification needed] wins. Modern handball is usually played indoors, but outdoor variants exist in the forms of field handball and Czech handball (which were more common in the past) and beach handball (also called sandball). American handball and Gaelic handball are completely different sports to team handball. The game is quite fast and includes body contact as the defenders try to stop the attackers from approaching the goal. Contact is only allowed when the defensive player is completely in front of the offensive player, i.e. between the offensive player and the goal. This is referred to as a player sandwich. Any contact from the side or especially from behind is considered dangerous and is usually met with penalties. When a defender successfully stops an attacking player, the play is stopped and restarted by the attacking team from the spot of the infraction or on the nine meter line. Unlike in basketball where players are allowed to commit only 5 fouls in a game (6 in the NBA), handball players are allowed an unlimited number of faults, which are considered good defence and disruptive to the attacking teams rhythm. Goals are scored quite frequently; usually both teams score at least 20 goals each, and it is not uncommon for both teams to score more than 30 goals. This was not true in the earliest history of the game, when the scores were more akin to that of ice hockey[clarification needed]. But, as offensive play has improved since the late 1980s, particularly the use of counterattacks (fast breaks) after a failed attack from the other team, goal scoring has increased. Origins and development There are records of handball-like games in medieval France, and among the Inuit in Greenland, in the Middle Ages. By the 19th century, there existed similar games of hÃ ¥ndbold from Denmark, hÃ ¡zenÃ ¡ in the Czech Republic, hÃ ¡dzanÃ ¡ in Slovakia, gandbol in Ukraine, torball in Germany, as well as versions in Uruguay. The team handball game of today was formed by the end of the 19th century in northern Europe, primarily Denmark, Germany, Norway and Sweden. Holger Nielsen, a Danish gym teacher, drew up the rules for modern handball (hÃ ¥ndbold) in 1898 and published them in 1906, and Rasmus Nicolai Ernst, another Danish teacher, did something similar in 1897. Modern Handball is therefore widely considered a game of Danish origins. Another set of team Handball rules was published on 29 October 1917 by Max Heiser, Karl Schelenz, and Erich Konigh from Germany. After 1919 these rules were improved by Karl Schelenz. The first international games were played under these rules, between Germany and Belgium for men in 1925 and between Germany and Austria for women in 1930. In 1926, the Congress of the International Amateur Athletics Federation nominated a committee to draw up international rules for field handball. The International Amateur Handball Federation was formed in 1928, and the International Handball Federation was formed in 1946. Mens field handball was played at the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin. During the next several decades, indoor handball flourished and evolved in the Scandinavian countries. The sport re-emerged onto the world stage as team handball for the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich. Womens team handball was added at the 1976 Summer Olympics. Due to its popularity in the region, the Eastern European countries that refined the event became the dominant force in the sport when it was reintroduced. The International Handball Federation organized the mens world championship in 1938 and every 4 (sometimes 3) years from World War II to 1995. Since the 1995 world championship in Iceland, the competition has been every two years. The womens world championship has been played since 1957. The IHF also organizes womens and mens junior world championships. By July 2009, the IHF listed 166 member federations approximately 795,000 teams and 19 million players. Rules Unless otherwise noted, the rules described are the official international rules provided by the International Handball Federation (IHF). Summary The handball playing field is similar to an indoor soccer field. Two teams of seven players (six field players plus one goalkeeper) take the field and attempt to score points by putting the game ball into the opposing teams goal. In handling the ball, players are subject to the following restrictions: After receiving the ball, players can only hold the ball for three seconds before passing, dribbling (similar to a basketball dribble), or shooting. After receiving the ball, players can take up to three steps without dribbling. If players dribble, they may take an additional three steps. Players that stop dribbling have three seconds to pass or shoot. They may take three additional steps during this time. No players other than the defending goalkeeper are allowed within the goal line (within 6 meters of the goal). Goalkeepers are allowed outside this line.  Playing field Handball is played on a court 40 by 20 metres (130 Ãâ" 66 ft), with a goal in the center of each end. The goals are surrounded by a near-semicircular area, called the zone or the crease, defined by a line six meters from the goal. A dashed near-semicircular line nine meters from the goal marks the free-throw line. Each line on the court is part of the area it encompasses. This implies that the middle line belongs to both halves at the same time. Goals Each goal has a rectangular clearance area of three meters in the width and two meters in the height. It are be securely bolted either to the floor or the wall behind. The goal posts and the crossbar are be made out of the same material (e.g. wood or aluminium) and feature a quadratic cross section with a side of 8 cm (3 inches). The three sides of the beams visible from the playing field are be painted alternatingly in two contrasting colors which both have to contrast against the background. The colors on both goals are the same. Each goal has to feature a net. This are be fastened in such a way that a ball thrown into does not leave or pass the goal under normal circumstances. If necessary, a second net may be clasped to the back of the net on the inside. Goal perimeter The goals are surrounded by the crease. This area is delimited by two quarter circles with a radius of six meters around the far corners of each goal post and a connecting line parallel to the goal line. Only the defending goalkeeper is allowed inside this perimeter. However, the court players may catch and touch the ball in the air within it as long as the player starts his jump outside the zone and releases the ball before he lands (landing inside the perimeter is allowed in this case). If a player contacts the ground inside the goal perimeter he are take the most direct path out of it. However, should a player cross the zone in an attempt to gain an advantage (e.g. better position) his team cedes the ball. Similarly, violation of the zone by a defending player is only penalized if he does so to gain an advantage in defending. Substitution area Outside of one long edge of the playing field to both sides of the middle line are the substitution areas for each team. The areas usually contain the benches as seating opportunities. Team officials, substitutes and suspended players are wait within this area. The area always lies to the same side as the teams own goal. During half-time substitution areas are swapped. Any player entering or leaving the play are cross the substitution line which is part of the side line and extends 4.5 meters from the middle line to the teams side. Duration Team timeout. A standard match for all teams of 16 and older has two periods of 30 minutes with a 15 minute half-time. Teams switch sides of the court at halftime, as well as benches. For youths the game duration is: 2 x 25 minutes at ages 12 to 16. 2 x 20 minutes at ages 8 to 12. However, national federations of some countries may differ in their implementation from the official guidelines. If a decision are be reached in a particular match (e.g. in a tournament) and it ends in a draw after regular time, there are at maximum two overtimes of 2 x 5 minutes with a 1 minute break each. Should these not decide the game either, the winning team is determined in a penalty shootout (best-of-5 rounds; if still tied, extra rounds afterwards until won by one team). The referees may call timeout according to their sole discretion, typical reasons are injuries, suspensions or court cleaning. Penalty throws should only trigger a timeout for lengthy delays as a change of the goalkeeper. Each team may call one team timeout (TTO) per period which lasts one minute. This right may only be invoked by team in ball possession. To do so, the representative of the team lays a green card marked by black T on the desk of the timekeeper. The timekeeper then immediately interrupts the game by sounding an acoustic signal and stops the time. Referees A Handball match is led by two equal referees.Namely the goal line referee and the court referee. Some national bodies allow games with only a single referee in special cases like illness on short notice. Should the referees disagree on any occasion, a decision is made on mutual agreement during a short timeout, or, in case of punishments, the more severe of the two comes into effect. The referees are obliged to make their decisions on the basis of their observations of facts. Their judgements are final and can only be appealed against if not in compliance with the rules. The referees (blue shirts) keep both teams between them. The referees position themselves in such a way that the team players are confined between them. They stand diagonally aligned so that each can observe one side line. Depending on their positions one is called field referee and the other goal referee. These positions automatically switch on ball turnover. They physically exchange their positions approximately every 10 minutes (long exchange) and change sides every 5 minutes (short exchange). The IHF defines 18 hand signals for quick visual communication with players and officials. The signal for warning or disqualification is accompanied by a yellow or red card,  respectively. The referees also use whistle blows to indicate infractions or restart the play. The referees are supported by a scorekeeper and a timekeeper who attend to formal things like keeping track of goals and suspensions or starting and stopping the clock, respectively. They also have an eye on the benches and notify the referees on substitution errors. Their desk is located in between both substitutions areas. Team players, substitutes and officials Each team consists of 7 players on court and up to 7 substitute players on the bench. One player on the court are be the designated goalkeeper differing in his or her clothing from the rest of the field players. Substitution of players can be done in any number and at any time during game play. An exchange takes place over the substitution line. A prior notification of the referees is not necessary. Some national bodies as the Deutscher Handball Bund (DHB, German Handball Federation) allow substitution in junior teams only when in ball possession or during timeouts. This restriction is intended to prevent early specialization of players to offense or defense. Field players Field players are allowed to touch the ball with any part of their bodies above and including the knee. As in several other team sports, a distinction is made between catching and dribbling. A player who is in possession of the ball may stand stationary for only three seconds and may only take three steps. They are then either shoot, pass or dribble the ball. At any time taking more than three steps is considered travelling and results in a turnover. A player may dribble as many times as he wants (though since passing is faster it is the preferred method of attack) as long as during each dribble his hand contacts only the top of the ball. Therefore basketball-style carrying is completely prohibited, and results in a turnover. After the dribble is picked up, the player has the right to another three seconds or three steps. The ball are then be passed or shot as further holding or dribbling will result in a double dribble turnover and a free throw for the other team. Other offensive infractions that result in a turnover include, charging, setting an illegal screen, or carrying the ball into the six meter zone.  Goalkeeper Only the goalkeeper is allowed to move freely within the goal perimeter, although he may not cross the goal perimeter line while carrying or dribbling the ball. Within the zone, he is allowed to touch the ball with all parts of his body including his feet. The goalkeeper may participate in the normal play of his team mates. As he is then considered as normal field player, he is typically substituted for a regular field player if his team uses this scheme to outnumber the defending players. As this player becomes the designated goalkeeper on the court, he are wear some vest or bib to identify himself as such. If the goalkeeper deflects the ball over the outer goal line, his team stays in possession of the ball in contrast to other sports like football. The goalkeeper resumes the play with a throw from within the zone (goalkeeper throw). Passing to your own goalkeeper results in a turnover. Throwing the ball against the head of the goalkeeper when he is not moving is to be punished by disqualification (red card). Team officials Each team is allowed to have a maximum of four team officials seated on the benches. An official is anybody who is neither player nor substitute. One official are be the designated representative who is usually the team manager. The representative may call team timeout once every period and may address scorekeeper, timekeeper and referees. Other officials typically include physicians or managers. Neither official is allowed to enter the playing court without permission of the referees. Ball A size III handball. The ball is spherical and are either be made of leather or a synthetic material. It is not allowed to have a shiny or slippery surface. As it is intended to be operated by a single hand, the official sizes vary depending on age and gender of the participating teams. Size Resin product used to improve ball handling. Though not officially regulated, the ball is usually resinated. The resin improves the ability of the players to manipulate the ball with a single hand like spinning trick shots. Some indoor arenas prohibit the usage of resin since many products leave sticky stains on the floor. Awarded throws The referees may award a special throw to a team. This usually happens after certain events like scored goals, off-court balls, turnovers, timeouts, etc. All of these special throws require the thrower to obtain a certain position and pose restrictions on the positions of all other players. Sometimes the execution are wait for a whistle blow by the referee. Throw-off A throw-off takes place from the center of the court. The thrower are touch the middle line with one foot and all of the other players are be in the half of their team. The defending players are keep a distance of at least three meters to the thrower. A throw-off occurs at the begin of each period and after the opposing team scored a goal. It are be cleared by the referees. Modern Handball introduced the fast throw-off concept, i. e. the play will be immediately restarted by the referees as soon as the executing team fulfilles its requirements. Many teams leverage this rule to score easy goals before the opposition has time to form a stable defense line. Throw-in The team which did not touch the ball last is awarded a throw-in when the ball fully crosses the side line or touches the ceiling. If the ball crosses the outer goal line, a throw-in is only awarded if the defending field players touched the balls last. Execution requires the thrower to place one foot on the nearest outer line to the cause. All defending players are keep a distance of three meters. However, they are allowed to stand immediately outside their own goal area even when the distance is less. Goalkeeper-throw If ball crosses the outer goal line without interference from the defending team or when deflected by their goalkeeper, a goalkeeper-throw is awarded to the defending team. This is the most common turnover. The goalkeeper resumes the play with a throw from anywhere within his goal area. Free-throw A free-throw restarts the play after an interruption by the referees. It takes places from the spot where the interruption was caused as long as this spot is outside of the free-throw line of the opposing team. In the latter case the throw is deferred to the nearest spot on the free-throw line. Free-throws are the equivalent to free-kicks in association football. The thrower may take a direct attempt for a goal which is, however, not feasible if the defending team organized a defense. A 7-meter throw. 7-meter throw A 7-meter throw is awarded when a clear chance of scoring is illegally prevented anywhere on the court by a opposing team player, official or spectator. It is also awarded when the referees interrupted a legitimate scoring chance for any reason. The thrower steps with one foot behind the 7-meter line with only the defending goalkeeper between him and the goal. The goalkeeper are keep a distance of three meters which is marked by a short tick on the floor. All other players are remain behind the free-throw line until execution. The thrower are await the whistle blow of the referee. A 7-meter throw is the equivalent to a penalty kick in association football, it is, however, far more common and typically occurs several times in a single game. Penalties Yellow card shown in a handball match. Penalties are given to players, in progressive format, for fouls that require more punishment than just a free-throw. Actions directed mainly at the opponent and not the ball (such as reaching around, holding, pushing, hitting, tripping, or jumping into opponent) as well as contact from the side or from behind a player are all considered illegal and subject to penalty. Any infraction that prevents a clear scoring opportunity, will result in a seven-meter penalty shot. Typically the referee will give a warning yellow card for an illegal action, but if the contact was particularly dangerous the referee can forego the warning for an immediate two-minute suspension. A player can only get one warning before receiving a two minute suspension. One player is only permitted two 2-minute suspensions; third time he/she will be shown the red card. A red card results in an ejection from the game and a two minute penalty for the team. A player may receive a red card directly for particularly rough penalties. For instance any contact from behind during a fast break is now being treated with a red card. A red carded player has to leave the playing area completely. A player who is disqualified may be substituted with another player after the two minute penalty is served. A Coach/Official can also be penalized progressively. Any coach/official who receives a 2-minute suspension will have to pull out one of his players for two minutes note: the player is not the one punished and can be substituted in again, because the main penalty is the team playing with a man less than the other. After having lost the ball during an attack, the ball has to be laid down quickly or else the player not following this rule will face a 2-minute suspension. Also gesticulating or verbally questioning the referees order, as well as arguing with the officials decisions, will normally result in a 2-minute suspension. If it is done in a very provocative way, a player can be given a double 2-minute suspension if he/she does not walk straight off the field to the bench after being given a suspension, or if the referee deems the tempo deliberately slow. Illegal substitution, any substitution that does not take place in the specified substitution area or where the entering player enters before the exiting player exits is also punishable with a 2 minute suspension. Gameplay Formations Positions of attacking (red) and defending players (blue), in a 5-1 defense formation. (German captions) Players are typically referred to by the position they are playing. The positions are always denoted from the view of the respective goalkeeper, so that a defender on the right opposes an attacker on the left. However, not all of the following positions may be occupied depending on the formation or potential suspensions. Offense Left and right wingman. These typically excel at ball control and wide jumps from the outside of the goal perimeter to get into a better shooting angle at the goal. Teams usually try to occupy the left position with a right-handed player and vice versa. Left and right backcourt. Goal attempts by these players are typically made by jumping high and shooting over the defenders. Thus, it is usually advantageous to have tall players for these positions. Center backcourt. A player with experience is preferred on this position who acts as playmaker and the handball equivalent of a basketball point guard. Pivot (left and right, if applicable). This player tends to intermingle with the defense, setting picks and attempting to disrupt the defense formation. This positions requires the least jumping skills but ball control and physical strength are an advantage. Defense Far left and far right. The opponents of the wingmen. Half left and half right. The opponents of the left and right backcourts. Back center (left and right). Opponent of the pivot. Front center. Opponent of the center backcourt, may also be set against another specific backcourt player. Offensive play Attacks are played with all field players on the side of the defenders. Depending on the speed of the attack, one distinguishes between three attack waves with a decreasing chance of success: Womens Handball a jump shot completes a fastbreak. Mens Handball a jump shot (Kiril Lazarov, world record-holder for the number of goals scored in one World Championship) . First Wave First wave attacks are characterized by the absence of defending players around their goal perimeter. The chance of success is very high, as the throwing player is unhindered in his scoring attempt. Such attacks typically occur after an intercepted pass or a steal and if the defending team can switch fast to offense. The far left/far right will usually try to run the attack as they are not as tightly bound in the defense. On a turnover, they immediately sprint forward and receive the ball halfway to the other goal. Thus, these positions are commonly held by quick players. Second Wave If the first wave is not successful and some defending players gained their positions around the zone, the second wave comes into play: The remaining players advance with quick passes to locally outnumber the retreating defenders. If one player manages to step up to the perimeter or catches the ball at this spot he becomes unstoppable by legal defensive means. From this position the chance of success is naturally very high. Second wave attacks became much more important with the fast throw-off rule. Third Wave The time during which the second wave may be successful is very short, as then the defenders closed the gaps around the zone. In the third wave, the attackers use standardized attack patterns usually involving crossing and passing between the back court players who either try to pass the ball through a gap to their pivot, take a jumping shot from the backcourt at the goal, or lure the defense away from a wingman. The third wave evolves into the normal offensive play when all defenders reach not only the zone but gain their accustomed positions. Some teams then substitute specialized offense players. However, this implies that these players are play in the defense should the opposing team be able to switch quickly to offense. The latter is another benefit for fast playing teams. If the attacking team does not make sufficient progress (eventually releasing a shot on goal), the referees can call passive play (since about 1995, the referee gives a passive warning some time before the actual call by holding one hand up in the air, signaling that the attacking team should release a shot soon), turning control over to the other team. A shot on goal or an infringement leading to a yellow card or two minute penalty will mark the start of a new attack, causing the hand to be taken down, but a shot blocked by the defense or a normal free throw will not. If it were not for this rule, it would be easy for an attacking team to stall the game indefinitely, as it is difficult to intercept a pass without at the same time conceding dangerous openings towards the goal.  Defensive play The usual formations of the defense are 6-0, when all the defense players line up between the 6 meter and 9 meter lines to form a wall; the 5-1, when one of the players cruises outside the 9 meter perimeter, usually targeting the center forwards while the other 5 line up on the six meter line; and the lesser common 4-2 when there are two such defenders out front. Very fast teams will also try a 3-3 formation which is close to a switching man-to-man style. The formations vary greatly from country to country and reflect each countrys style of play. 6-0 is sometimes known as flat defense, and all other formations are usually called offensive defense. Organization Handball teams are usually organized as clubs. On a national level, the clubs are associated in federations which organize matches in leagues and tournaments. International bodies The administrative and controlling body for international Handball is the International Handball Federation (IHF). The federation organizes world championships, separate for men and women, held in uneven years. The final round is hosted in one of its member states. Current title holders are France (men) and Russia (women). The IHF is composed of five continental federations which organize continental championships held every other second year. In addition to these competitions between national teams, the federations arrange international tournaments between club teams. The federations and their corresponding tournaments and members are summarized in the following table: International Handball Federation (IHF) Championship World Mens Handball Championship Ã¢â¬â World Womens Handball Championship Club Super Globe Members Asia Ã¢â¬â Asian Handball Federation (AHF) Championship Asian Womens Handball Championship Ã¢â¬â Asian Mens Handball Championship Club Asian Club League Handball Championship Members Afghanistan Ã¢â¬ ¢ Bahrain Ã¢â¬ ¢ Bangladesh Ã¢â¬ ¢ China Ã¢â¬ ¢ Chinese Taipei Ã¢â¬ ¢ Hong Kong Ã¢â¬ ¢ India Ã¢â¬ ¢ Iran Ã¢â¬ ¢ Iraq Ã¢â¬ ¢ Japan Ã¢â¬ ¢ Jordan Ã¢â¬ ¢ Kazakhstan Ã¢â¬ ¢ Kuwait Ã¢â¬ ¢ Kyrgyzstan Ã¢â¬ ¢ Lebanon Ã¢â¬ ¢ Macau Ã¢â¬ ¢ Malaysia Ã¢â¬ ¢ Mongolia Ã¢â¬ ¢ Nepal Ã¢â¬ ¢ North Korea Ã¢â¬ ¢ Oman Ã¢â¬ ¢ Pakistan Ã¢â¬ ¢ Palestinian Authority Ã¢â¬ ¢ Philippines Ã¢â¬ ¢ Qatar Ã¢â¬ ¢ Saudi Arabia Ã¢â¬ ¢ South Korea Ã¢â¬ ¢ Syria Ã¢â¬ ¢ Tajikistan Ã¢â¬ ¢ Thailand Ã¢â¬ ¢ Turkmenistan Ã¢â¬ ¢ United Arab Emirates Ã¢â¬ ¢ Uzbekistan Ã¢â¬ ¢ Vietnam Ã¢â¬ ¢ Yemen Africa Ã¢â¬â ConfÃ ©dÃ ©ration Africaine de Handball (CAHB) Championship African Handball Nations Championship Club Champions League Ã¢â¬â Cup Winners Cup Members Algeria Ã¢â¬ ¢ Angola Ã¢â¬ ¢ Burundi Ã¢â¬ ¢ Benin Ã¢â¬ ¢ Cameroon Ã¢â¬ ¢ Republic of Cape Verde Ã¢â¬ ¢ Central African Republic Ã¢â¬ ¢ Chad Ã¢â¬ ¢ Comoros Ã¢â¬ ¢ Congo Ã¢â¬ ¢ Democratic Republic of the Congo Ã¢â¬ ¢ Djibouti Ã¢â¬ ¢ Egypt Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ethiopia Ã¢â¬ ¢ Gabon Ã¢â¬ ¢ Gambia Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ghana Ã¢â¬ ¢ Guinea Ã¢â¬ ¢ Guinea-Bissau Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ivory Coast Ã¢â¬ ¢ Kenya Ã¢â¬ ¢ Lesotho Ã¢â¬ ¢ Liberia Ã¢â¬ ¢ Libya Ã¢â¬ ¢ Madagascar Ã¢â¬ ¢ Mali Ã¢â¬ ¢ Mauritania Ã¢â¬ ¢ Mauritius Ã¢â¬ ¢ Morocco Ã¢â¬ ¢ Mozambique Ã¢â¬ ¢ Namibia Ã¢â¬ ¢ Nigeria Ã¢â¬ ¢ Niger Ã¢â¬ ¢ Rwanda Ã¢â¬ ¢ Senegal Ã¢â¬ ¢ Seychelles Ã¢â¬ ¢ Sierra Leone Ã¢â¬ ¢ Somalia Ã¢â¬ ¢ South Africa Ã¢â¬ ¢ Sudan Ã¢â¬ ¢ Tanzania Ã¢â¬ ¢ Togo Ã¢â¬ ¢ Tunisia Ã¢â¬ ¢ Uganda Ã¢â¬ ¢ Zambia Ã¢â¬ ¢ Zimbabwe Pan-America Ã¢â¬â Pan-American Team Handball Federation (PATHF) Championship American Handball Championship Members Argentina Ã¢â¬ ¢ Barbados Ã¢â¬ ¢ Brazil Ã¢â¬ ¢ Canada Ã¢â¬ ¢ Chile Ã¢â¬ ¢ Colombia Ã¢â¬ ¢ Costa Rica Ã¢â¬ ¢ Cuba Ã¢â¬ ¢ Dominican Republic Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ecuador Ã¢â¬ ¢ El Salvador Ã¢â¬ ¢ Greenland Ã¢â¬ ¢ Guatemala Ã¢â¬ ¢ Haiti Ã¢â¬ ¢ Honduras Ã¢â¬ ¢ Mexico Ã¢â¬ ¢ Nicaragua Ã¢â¬ ¢ Panama Ã¢â¬ ¢ Paraguay Ã¢â¬ ¢ Puerto Rico Ã¢â¬ ¢ Trinidad and Tobago Ã¢â¬ ¢ United States Ã¢â¬ ¢ Uruguay Ã¢â¬ ¢ Venezuela Oceania Ã¢â¬â Oceania Handball Federation (OHF) Championship Oceania Handball Nations Cup Club Oceania Champions Cup Members Australia Ã¢â¬ ¢ Cook Islands Ã¢â¬ ¢ New Zealand Ã¢â¬ ¢ Samoa Ã¢â¬ ¢ Vanuatu Ã¢â¬ ¢ French Polynesia Ã¢â¬ ¢ New Caledonia Ã¢â¬ ¢ Wallis and Futuna Europe Ã¢â¬â European Handball Federation (EHF) Championship European Womens Handball Championship Ã¢â¬â European Mens Handball Championship Club Women Champions League Ã¢â¬ ¢ Cup Winners Cup Ã¢â¬ ¢ EHF Cup Ã¢â¬ ¢ Challenge Cup Ã¢â¬ ¢ Champions Trophy Men Champions League Ã¢â¬ ¢ Cup Winners Cup Ã¢â¬ ¢ EHF Cup Ã¢â¬ ¢ Challenge Cup Ã¢â¬ ¢ Champions Trophy Members Albania Ã¢â¬ ¢ Armenia Ã¢â¬ ¢ Austria Ã¢â¬ ¢ Azerbaijan Ã¢â¬ ¢ Belarus Ã¢â¬ ¢ Belgium Ã¢â¬ ¢ Bosnia and Herzegovina Ã¢â¬ ¢ Bulgaria Ã¢â¬ ¢ Croatia Ã¢â¬ ¢ Cyprus Ã¢â¬ ¢ Czech Republic Ã¢â¬ ¢ Denmark Ã¢â¬ ¢ England Ã¢â¬ ¢ Estonia Ã¢â¬ ¢ Faroe Islands Ã¢â¬ ¢ Finland Ã¢â¬ ¢ France Ã¢â¬ ¢ Georgia Ã¢â¬ ¢ Germany Ã¢â¬ ¢ Greece Ã¢â¬ ¢ Hungary Ã¢â¬ ¢ Iceland Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ireland Ã¢â¬ ¢ Israel Ã¢â¬ ¢ Italy Ã¢â¬ ¢ Latvia Ã¢â¬ ¢ Liechtenstein Ã¢â¬ ¢ Lithuania Ã¢â¬ ¢ Luxembourg Ã¢â¬ ¢ Macedonia Ã¢â¬ ¢ Malta Ã¢â¬ ¢ Moldova Ã¢â¬ ¢ Monaco Ã¢â¬ ¢ Montenegro Ã¢â¬ ¢ Netherlands Ã¢â¬ ¢ Norway Ã¢â¬ ¢ Poland Ã¢â¬ ¢ Portugal Ã¢â¬ ¢ Romania Ã¢â¬ ¢ Russia Ã¢â¬ ¢ Scotland Ã¢â¬ ¢ Serbia Ã¢â¬ ¢ Slovakia Ã¢â¬ ¢ Slovenia Ã¢â¬ ¢ Spain Ã¢â¬ ¢ Sweden Ã¢â¬ ¢ Switzerland Ã¢â¬ ¢ Turkey Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ukraine Ã¢â¬ ¢ Great Britain Ã¢â¬ ¢ Kosovo Handball is an olympic sport played during the Summer Olympics. It is also played during the Pan American Games, All-Africa Games, an d Asian Games. National competitions Bosnia and Herzegovina: Handball Championship of Bosnia and Herzegovina Croatia: Croatian First League of Handball Czech : Zubr extraliga Denmark: GuldBageren Ligaen, Jack Jones Ligaen France: Ligue Nationale de Handball Germany: Handball-Bundesliga Greece: Greek Mens handball championship Hungary: Nemzeti BajnoksÃ ¡g I (men), Nemzeti BajnoksÃ ¡g I (women) Iceland: N1 deildin Montenegro: First League (men), First League (women), Second League (women) Poland: Polish Ekstraklasa Mens Handball League, Polish Ekstraklasa Womens Handball League Portugal: Liga Portuguesa de Andebol, DivisÃ £o de Elite Romania: Liga NaÃ £ionalÃÆ' (men), Liga NaÃ £ionalÃÆ' (women) Scotland: Scottish Handball League Serbia: Serbian First League of Handball Slovakia: SlovenskÃ ¡ hadzanÃ ¡rska extraliga Slovenia: Slovenian First League of Handball, Handball Cup of Slovenia Spain: Liga ASOBAL, DivisiÃ ³n de Plata de Balonmano Sweden: Elitserien Turkey: Turkish Handball Super League United States: U.S. intercollegiate handball championships Commemorative coins Handball commemorative coin Handball events have been selected as a main motif in numerous collectors coins. One of the recent samples is the Ã¢â ¬10 Greek Handball commemorative coin, minted in 2003 to commemorate the 2004 Summer Olympics. On the coin, the modern athlete directs the ball in his hands towards his target, while in the background the ancient athlete is just about to throw a ball, in a game known as cheirosphaira, in a representation taken from a black-figure pottery vase of the Archaic period. References : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Team_handball
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
Introduction Diversity of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s population has reached a point where it is vital to address and more importantly to understand, the ever growing challenge that transcultural nursing poses to the nursing profession. Addressing this issue avoids discrimination and promotes equality within holistic nursing practice in order to meet patientsÃ¢â¬â¢ needs. Health care professionals should be qualified to deliver, on a daily basis, proficient care and sensitive skilled communication to culturally different individuals (Maier-Lorentz, 2008). To exercise professional nursing in a conceptual way holistic nursing care focuses on physical, emotional, social, environmental and spiritual aspects as well as on the idea that any individual involved in treatment care should be treated as a whole and with dignity (Dossey & Guzzetta, 2005). One of the areas to be discussed is Transcultural Nursing and LeiningerÃ¢â¬â¢s Transcultural Theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality and its research enablers: the Sunrise Enabler and the Ethnonursing Method. Another area will be Holistic Nursing Practice and NightingaleÃ¢â¬â¢s Nursing Theory of Environmental Adaptation as well as the liaison between Transcultural Nursing and Holistic Nursing Practice. NightingaleÃ¢â¬â¢s theory has been chosen over others because she was the first to acknowledge nursesÃ¢â¬â¢ work in a theoretical framework and also because she was considered to be the mother of nursing practices (Ellis, 2008). The development of culture care theory introduced health care professionals into a new nursing dimension formed by issues such as culture background, spirituality, environment and others that demonstrated how culture and health care are linked (Leininger, 2002a). Holistic Nursing Practice en... ...g. [Online]. 28 (1), p. 84. Available from: http://ezproxy.napier.ac.uk:2823/content/28/1/81.full.pdf+html [accessed 2nd April 2010]. The International Council for Nurses, (2005). The ICN Code of Ethics for Nurses. Available from: http://www.icn.ch/images/stories/documents/about/icncode_english.pdf [accessed 20th March 2011]. Woerner, L., Espinosa, J., Bourne, S., OÃ¢â¬â¢toole, M., & Ingerson, G., L., (2009). Project Exito!: Success through diversity and universality for outcomes improvement among Hispanic home care patients. [Online]. Nursing Outlook. 57 (5), p.271. Available from: http://ezproxy.napier.ac.uk:2152/science?_ob=MImg&_imagekey=B6WNY-4XB1JCX-B-1&_cdi=6975&_user=132448&_pii=S0029655409000177&_origin=gateway&_coverDate=10%2F31%2F2009&_sk=999429994&view=c&wchp=dGLzVlz-zSkzk&md5=04d1ebfb99f4824da35541a0a368b5a6&ie=/sdarticle.pdf [accessed 30th March 2011].
Sunday, January 12, 2020
So many nights I sit all alone and and I think about you, wondering if you are ever thinking about me too. It is probably unrealistic to think that you might be thinking of me as much. In the silence of the night with the moonlight shining through my window the tears roll down my face because I care so much and in my heart IÃ¢â¬â¢m doubtful that you can feel the same. All I ever asked from you is that you give me honesty, even if hurts me. Oh so long ago our paths ran into each others online, we chatted from time to time and you became my friend. After a while I started to feel things in my heart that I have never felt before. I started to care about you more than I thought it was possible to care about someone . You never said that you cared for me, but sometimes I just do not know. Would you even care if I disappeared into nothing? The entire time that we were getting to know each other IÃ¢â¬â¢ve asked you time and time again to Please be honest with me even if it hurts me, I still need that from you. I know that you have your life there just as I have my life here, and our lives keep us busy with our daily responsibilities, but when days pass and I do not hear from you my heart begins to ache and my eyes begin to fill up with tears once again. Sometimes I check my email just to see if I hear from you. I know that there were no promises made to me but if you truly care about me lease remember that I need to be reminded often. Loving someone with some much to over come , between is never easy to begin with, insecurities can become even more intense without knowing or hearing that you care each day. I will never ask you to be anyone but yourself, you are the one I have grown to love, but I do ask you to be honest with me even if it hurts me. Once again I am getting ready to climb into my bed, just wishing and dreaming that you were here with me, even if it can only be a short while. Do you ever wish that also or am I living in a silly fantasy world? For now I will tuck my hopes and dreams in my heart for the night. If I knew for sure how you felt I would know if I should back off or get closer. Should I take my hopes and dreams and put them in a box where I know that they will be safe, or do I take a risk and keep telling you my feelings? Whatever you have to say to me say it honestly, even if it hurts me. For some reason fate has brought us together, IÃ¢â¬â¢m not sure of itÃ¢â¬â¢s plan, but I know there was a reason. I have put my trust into fateÃ¢â¬â¢s hands, where it wants me to be in your life, I will be, what it wants from you and I will be. I can hope and I can wish, but it can only work out the way I dream of, if that is want it wants it to be. There is only one thing I need to ask of you and that is Ã¢â¬Å"Please Be Honest With Me Even If It Hurts MeÃ¢â¬
Saturday, January 4, 2020
Metamorphosis and Rhinoceros both explore conformity through the representation of animals. Eugene Ionesco once said, Ã¢â¬Ë[A]mong the authors who have influenced me the most, the one who comes to mind immediately is Kafka. I would perhaps not have written the plays I wrote if there hadn t been KafkaÃ¢â¬â¢ (Jacquart and Ionesco 1973: 47). This may explain why the works of Metamorphosis by Franz Kafka (1915) and Rhinoceros by Eugene Ionesco (1959) use very similar components to explore conformity. The abstract representation of animals, in the two texts, is key to understanding the correlation between conformity and loss of humanity. However, Kafka uses an insect to represent how Gregor destructs his own humanity, whereas Ionesco looks at the danger of power in the collective by representing each conformist as a rhinoceros. Furthermore, animals representing humans are crucial to the themes of alienation and resistance in these texts. Kafka uses animals to alienate Gregor from conf orming to society. Arguably, the metamorphosis is the only way for Gregor to resist conforming, showing that Kafka represents animals as a physical rejection of conformist lifestyle. Comparably, Ionesco uses animals in the opposite way to Kafka. On one hand, he portrays BerengerÃ¢â¬â¢s alienation as a reason for resisting conformity. On the other, Ionesco explores the protagonistÃ¢â¬â¢s choice to resist, if he has one. Thus, this essay will prove that Kafka and Ionesco both use the representation of animals toShow MoreRelatedAlienation As The Reason For Berenger s Resistance1278 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesresistance, in Rhinoceros. Alcoholism is a major cause of his alienation, in Act Three, Berenger considers alcohol as the reason for his isolation and subsequent inability to transform. When conversing with Dudard, he says Ã¢â¬Ë[A]lcohol is good for epidemics. It immunizes you Ã¢â¬ ¦ Jean never touched alcohol. He just pretended to. Maybe thatÃ¢â¬â¢s why heÃ¢â¬ ¦ perhaps that explains his attitudeÃ¢â¬â¢ (Ionesco 1960: 76). This insinuates that Berenger understands why he does not transform into rhinoceros, identifying his